Belajar dan Teknologi Pembelajaran

Kinds of Text

text

Subject
:
Reading I
SKS
:
4 SKS
Semester/Class
:
Extension (I B-1)
Lecturer
:
Irwan Sulistyanto, S.Pd
Time allocation
:
As Scheduled
Classroom
:
As Scheduled

Topic 1 : Kinds of Text

Introduction:

  • Make a group consist of 4 persons.
  • Identify how many kinds of Text based on some theories.
  • Analyze it based on the definition and the generic structure.
  • Do in your paper first then it is typed on Ms. Word.
  • Convert to .pdf files
  • Don't forget write your group members on the last paper.
  • After it is completed, it is posted on your Facebook timeline in order to the other groups can give comment to your task.
  • Please also submitted to irwansulistyanto18@gmail.com about your result.

Material

A. Text types vs text forms
Text types are general semantic-functional concepts and are not to be confused with text forms (advertisements, editorials, sermons, shopping lists, poems, telephone books, novels, etc.)

"Text. A stretch of language, either in speech or in writing, that is semantically and pragmatically coherent in its real-world context. A text can range from just one word (e.g. a SLOW sign on the road) to a sequence of utterances or sentences in a speech, a letter, a novel, etc."
(Ronald Carter and Michael McCarthy, Cambridge Grammar of English. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006)

 "On the one hand, text may be defined as 'any sequence of sentences having a certain coherence,' and in this weak sense of the term each folk-tale is a text. On the other hand text may be defined more rigorously as 'any unchangeable sequence of sentences which has a strong cohesion and the unchangeable character of which is related to a value system of some sort.'"
(Thomas G. Pavel, "Some Remarks on Narrative Grammars," in Linguistic Perspectives on Literature, ed. by M. K. L. Ching et al. Taylor & Francis, 1980)

"As a result of a communicative act, a text may be defined as a relatively independent and hierarchically structured linguistic unit (macrostructure) which reflects a complex state of affairs and has a specific communicative intention. The state of affairs may refer to the real world or to the world of imagination and fiction."
(Rosemarie Glaser, "A Plea for Phraseo-Stylistics," in Linguistics Across Historical and Geographical Boundaries, ed. by Dieter Kastovsky and A. J. Szwedek. Walter de Gruyter, 1986)

Written communication can be literary or non-literary; therefore, a text either belongs to the fictional or the non-fictional text group. Especially within the non-fictional text-group the problem of classification is still open to discussion. Either one follows the concept that the major communicative functions of the language provide categories for useful distinctions; or one takes the position that 'the text types correlate with forms and ranges of human cognition' (Werlich, A Text Grammar of English, p. 21).  As indicated by the last idea there are five fundamental content sorts: description, narration, exposition, argumentation and instruction.


These are theoretical norms which in actual texts occur in manifold combinations and individual shapes (i.e. text forms).

1. Descriptive texts basically deal with factual phenomena, e.g. objects and people. Therfore you find many verbs of 'non-change' (e.g. to be, to stand, lie, sit etc.) and adverbs of place. Technical description tends to be neutral, exact and impersonal, while impressionistic description also gives expressions to the writer's feelings or moods.

2. Narrative texts types deal mainly with changes in time, i.e. with actions and events. Typical text type markers are verbs that denote 'change' as well as expressions of time (time-sequence signals)); but adverbs of place are not excluded. Narration is to be found in short stories, novels, biographies, anecdotes, diaries, news, stories and reports.

3. Expository texts tend to be explanatory: they explain objects and ideas in their interrelations. Typical verbs for the identification and explanation of objects and ideas are: to refer to, be defined, be called, consists of, contain etc. If a relation to previously mentioned facts and ideas is to be established, words like namely, incidentally, for example, in other words, etc. are used. A similarity to preceding phenomena can be expressed by similarly, also, too; additional information can be indicated by words like in addition, above all, on top of it all, etc. Typical of this text type are the expository essay, the definition, the summary and the interpretative piece.

4. Argumentative texts deal with problems and controversial ideas. Reasons for or against some topic are put forward. The ultimate aim is always to win the reader/audience round to the author's side. There is a dominantly dialectical text structure, and words like but, by contrast, however, yet, still, in any case, so, etc. are linguistic signals of a contrastive text structure. But the basis of any argumentative text form has to be provided by expository passages, by the explanation of facts, concepts, developments or processes. While COMMENT tends to be subjective in character, scientific argument seeks to be objective.

5. In instructive texts the writer tells the reader/audience what to do. The instructive text type is based on the action-demanding sentence. Commercial and political propaganda, directions, regulations, rules etc. are typical examples because they aim at influencing behavior.

It was so difference with the explanation before that the Common Core State Standards identify three types of writings: Argument, Informational/Explanatory, and Narrative. This theory only states three basic text types. The explanation are below. (Lauren Huebsch, Allen Brizee, 2014)

a. Argument: Definition
An argument is a reasoned, logical way of demonstrating the writer’s position, belief, or conclusion.  The writer makes a claim and then defends that claim with information from credible sources.  Students must clarify relationships between the claim and the evidence and address counter claims.  Argument takes the form of opinion in the elementary grades and evolves into argument in the middle and high school grades.


What are the characteristics of the argument text type?
Argument is an especially important text type since it requires the writer to provide reasoned, logical proof for a claim or assertion. The purpose of argument is to change the reader’s thinking, move the reader to action, or convince the reader to accept the writer’s explanation of a problem or concept. The complexities of this type of logical reasoning exceed the cognitive ability of most elementary students. Therefore, as a precursor to argument, elementary students are taught to express opinions that are well supported by facts and evidence.

“While all three text types are important, the Standards put particular emphasis on students’ ability to write sound arguments on substantive topics and issues, as this ability is critical to college and career readiness.” (From Appendix A, page 24 of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts.)

College and Career Readiness Anchor Standard:  Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
Argument is an especially important text type since it requires the writer to provide reasoned, logical proof for a claim or assertion. The purpose of argument is to change the reader’s thinking, move the reader to action, or convince the reader to accept the writer’s explanation of a problem or concept. The complexities of this type of logical reasoning exceed the cognitive ability of most elementary students. Therefore, as a precursor to argument, elementary students are taught to express opinions that are well supported by facts and evidence.

b. Narrative: Definition
Narrative writing coveys an experience, either real or imaginary and uses time as its deep structure.  Narrative writing can be informative, persuasive, or entertaining. 


What are the characteristics of the narrative text type?
Narrative writing uses time as its deep structure. This writing conveys experience – real or imagined. Genres that exemplify narrative writing include the autobiography, the memoir, and fictional stories. The purpose of a narrative may be to entertain, instruct, inform, or entertain.


College and Career Readiness Anchor Standard: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective techniques, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
c. Informational/Explanatory: Definition Informational/ explanatory writing conveys information accurately.  The writer’s purpose is to increase the reader’s knowledge, to help the reader better understand a procedure or process, or to increase the reader’s comprehension of a concept.  Information writing begins with the assumption of truthfulness and answers questions of why or how.  Writers draw information from what they already know and from primary and secondary sources.  They must select and incorporate relevant examples, facts, and details. 

What are the characteristics of the informative/explanatory text type?
Informative/explanatory writing conveys information accurately. Writings that exemplify this text type include summaries and instructions. The purpose of informative/explanatory writing is to increase knowledge, explain a procedure, or explore a concept in depth.


College and Career Readiness Anchor Standard:  Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

B. Kinds of Text in Senior High
Then, all the explanation above is different with our text in senior high school in Indonesia which tell us about 12 kinds of text, those are: 
NARRATIVE 
RECOUNT 
DESCRIPTIVE
REPORT 
EXPLANATION 
ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION
HORTATORY EXPOSITION 
PROCEDURE 
DISCUSSION
SPOOF 
NEWS ITEM 
REVIEW



Those all texts have own characteristics. You must read some literature to understand it.

C. Bibliography
Anderson,  M.  &  Anderson,  K.  1997.  Text  types  in  English  2.  South  Yarra:
Macmillan Education Australia Pty Ltd.

Bram, Barly. 1995. Write Well, Improving Writing Skill. Yogyakarta : Kanisius

Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. 1994. Kurikulum SLTP, GBPP, Jakarta : Depdikbud

Feez, S. & Joyce, H. 2002. Text-based syllabus design. Sydney: AMES

http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/writing/secondary/writingtypes.html access on January 27, 2015

http://englischlehrer.de/texts/texttypes.php access on January 27, 2015

https://englishdepartmentdotcom.wordpress.com/2011/06/15/12-kinds-of-texts/ access on January 27, 2015

Task
a. How many kinds of text based on your own opinion?
b. Mention the specific characteristics of kinds of text in Senior High based on the text above?
c. Explain what is the differences between theory one and two?
d. Make one argumentative and one description text!




1 comments - Skip ke Kotak Komentar

nurul iman said...

Hmm ternyata begitu ya brader terima kasih ya infonya.
Salam kenal dari blogger ganteng.

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